Best Practices - Overview


When developing for the ActiveVideo CloudTV™ H5 platform, it is important to understand which of the standard development and design practices should be followed, as well as to be aware of some things you may want to completely avoid. Following the best practices mentioned here will help avoid pitfalls, create clean and reusable code, and optimize performance.  Some of these apply to web design and design for low bandwidth situations in general, while others are specific to developing for the CloudTV™ H5 Platform.

Designing for TV

Despite being web-based, applications for CloudTV are not the same kind of applications that you would find on any website. Applications must be navigated through the use of a remote control as opposed to a mouse and a keyboard. Event listeners must be used to trap key presses by the remote and the user interface needs to respond accordingly. The use of CSS focus states enables a user to keep track of their on-screen location, as the platform does not come equipped with a floating cursor, such as a computer would use.

Data entry is something that should also be limited with CloudTV applications. Most remote controls do not have full alpha-numeric keyboards, so the use of an onscreen keyboard is required for text input. Anyone who has used an onscreen keyboard will attest that they can be cumbersome when entering large amounts of text.

Screen resolutions for TV are considerably limited when compared to those found on personal computers. One benefit for the design of applications on TV is the exact resolutions are known ahead of time and can be developed for and tested against. Having the style sheets either scale with the application by the use of percentages on objects or applying different style guides for the various resolutions are both acceptable solutions.

See "Dev Guide: Designing for TV" for tips on design best practices including: navigation, color, resolution, typography, audio/video, and writing.

Embedded Objects / Third Party Browser Plug-Ins

Do not use embedded objects or any type of object that requires an external plug-in for the WebKit engine. Popular plug-ins like Flash and Java are not supported as the use of them does not scale to the magnitude required for CloudTV deployments. Remember that when an application is executed, the video is generated on a server simultaneously with (potentially) thousands of other applications in the cloud, and all of these outputs are streamed to a set top box. This scalability is what limits the use of third party plug-ins. HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript allow for extensive, complex, and design savvy applications, including the use of AJAX and web services. There is rarely a need for any third party embedded object.

Runtime Generated Graphics

Do not use OpenGL, WebGL, 3D transforms or any type of object or control that would normally utilize thegraphics processing unit (GPU) with a standard web browser. CloudTV runs without the aid of a GPU and, if graphics are rendered in three dimensions, the effort on the CPU is increased exponentially which, once again, does not scale to the level required. Currently there is no 3D graphical work around, so you must continue to use rasterized images (.jpg, .png, .gif) and well-known and reliable illusions and methods used with them, to create depth.

Also avoid the use of the WebKit Canvas element. When using standard graphic display options like <img src=img.jpg> or <div style=background: url(img.jpg)> every macroblock drawn on screen is cached in the system and can be recreated without having to re-render itself. However, when canvas is used and a graphical area is updated during runtime/realtime, that image cannot be cached and every subsequent time that the same area is drawn, the engine is forced to redraw those same macroblocks each time. Thus, Canvas is not an efficient use of resources and greatly limits the scalability of the platform.


Using CloudTV H5 it is possible to create interesting and helpful animations that enhance the user experience.  However, care must be taken to create animations that work well in a low bandwidth environment.  Use CSS animations rather than Javascript animations whenever possible for best rendering quality on the CloudTV Platform.  JavaScript animations cannot be predicted by the CloudTV engine and decrease scalability. For additional tips on how to use animations, including using external javascript libraries for animation, see 'Dev Guide: Developing for TV - Part 2 (Advanced Topics)' included in the Related Articles at the end of this article.

Testing and Debugging

Applications should conform to web standards and can be developed mostly using Chrome or another HTML5 compliant WebKit browser.  However, you should always test your application on either CloudTV Player or on the client device (cable box, blu-ray player, roku, etc.)  CloudTV Player can emulate the same client you are deploying your application to, and should always be referenced whenever erroneous behavior is discovered and reported for support. Proper and constant testing will ensure that your application functions correctly, appears the same, and performs at the quality you expect.


Developing for CloudTV is similar to developing for mobile platforms.  You should use efficient coding techniques whenever possible to avoid overloading the CPU and to have your application render and animate as good as possible in low bandwidth scenarios. This will allow a higher number of concurrent sessions per Stitcher. For details on this, see 

  • Avoid writing to HTML elements if they already contain that same information — this would cause the platform to rerender those elements.
  • Use display:none instead of visibility:hidden or opacity:0 — again, this will avoid unnecessary rendering.
  • Preload UI graphics
  • Use CloudTV Player's 'Dirty Area' feature to analyze what is updating on your application and to identify any unexpected updates that could be improved. To turn on Dirty Rects in CloudTV Player, select View > Dirty Area.  It is important to use this feature because it may highlight differences in how rendering occurs in the CloudTV Platform.
  • When scrolling through a list, avoid other updates to the screen like animating advertisement banners.  This will minimize the amount of the screen that is being updated at one time.
  • Allow the Platform to cache external resources. The platform will do this automatically as long as you do not prevent this behavior by adding a random query parameter to your API queries (for example, in - do not add ?param=xxyy.)  One of the only exceptions to this would be when you are accessing an asset with the same file name that is being refreshed on a regular basis.  In this case, you would want to pass the parameter to assure not hitting a cached version.

Debug Screen

Always include a debug screen that can be accessed via a secret code sequence.  This will allow users to report the application version number or other important information when reporting bugs.  If an issue with your application arises in the field, you will want to be able to determine the exact version number of your application that the user has access to, in order to debug.

  • Monday, 17 December 2012

Your destination to find out more about just how easy it is to develop advanced applications that leverage the “write-once, deploy-everywhere” content creation environment of ActiveVideo’s CloudTV™ platform. You will be able to significantly reduce app time-to-market for connected devices of all types, as well as cable settop boxes that have no additional connectivity. Manufacturers and virtual service providers, as well as cable and IPTV operators around the world are currently benefiting from the advantages of ActiveVideo’s CloudTV platform.

© 2019 Active Video Networks. All Rights Reserved